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From the Archive
The Rugendas Letters:
Johann Moritz Rugendas’
First Voyage to Brazil

The Sections of Cap Trafalgar
The First Prussian Maritime Atlas
marine niemeyer - since 1992 -


Snitched  —  pursued  —  run  away  —  arrested

married  —  bequeathed & half  free

and  finally  released  en  gros

60  Years  Slave  Life  in  Brazil

in  highly  Rare  Original  Documents

Brazil – Slavery – Documents on Slavery in Brazil, Seven. Dec. 19, 1823 – Sep. 2, 1884. Autograph writing on paper (2) and lined paper (3) resp. as well as printed form filled out by hand (2). 8vo – sm. fol., 3 of which on double leaf.

Cultural-historically important block from the late period of one of the darkest chapters of the history of humanity. Its closure was “first suggested by the Quakers” (Meyers Konversations-Lexikon) and starting with the English parliament in 1788 it received increasing proscription, though it continued to make history for another hundred years, finding a bloody closure in North America in 1865 due to the civil war there while it took about another generation in the case of Brazil here. And even the Holy See had taken its stand against the slavery only in 1839 and in such a way 16 years after the 1823 first document here.

In their sequence given here present thematically wide-ranged Brazilian documents thus are

exemplary  evidences

of  a  gradual  break  with  slavery  there , too ,

effected not least also by social and demographic changes. So according to a census already in 1872 about three quarters of all Africans and Brazilians of African descent were free: the widespread Portuguese practice of manumission – frequently through self-purchase as also documented below – as a means of getting workers for somewhat more responsible occupations like overseers, cowboys or muleteers as well as the fact that children of free mothers also were free had eroded slavery since long. Furthermore in the end employing white workers had frequently become cheaper than purchase and keeping of black slaves.

Their  quite  essential  additional  value

the  present  Brazilian  unique  items  receive , however ,

by the fact that two years after the now final abolition of slavery in Brazil effected in 1888 by Emperor Pedro II – preceded by contracts with England of already 1826 + 1830 and the slave emancipation act of 1871 –

“ all  documents  related  to  the  slave  trade

were  ordered  burned

by the (now republican) government as an attempt to erase slavery from the face of Brazilian history ”

(Daniel Ruiz-Rosario, Grupo Capoeira Brasil San Antonio Texas).

So far the historical context of the present documents, described and quoted in detail in the following.


Rio de Janeiro , December 19, 1823

Brazil - Slave Theft

“Two days ago left this city, taking 20 stolen slaves, the mestizo Martinho … and two white comrades, one Joze Ramos and the other Antonio Joze de Vín (?) the most positve orders to apprehend the slaves and arrest the thieves, send these to this commissariat so that is proceeded with all the rigor of the laws … orders to all District Commanders and … to the commanders of the regiments where they may pass through, to be accomplished with diligence”. Copy of the Ordinance (“Copia da Portaria”) by Estevao Ribeiro de Rezende as or by the judge of Vila de Rezende. 4to. 1 page. Double leaf watermarked J Green / 1822 and with dry stamp with crown upper left. – Several folding traces almost utterly smoothed out as well as tiny worm holes especially in the white margin just as on the right, but without impairment of the writing.

“ Ha dois dias partir ão desta Cide levando vinte Escros furtados, o Caboclo Martinho de tal, e dous Companheiros brancos, hũ Joze Ramos, e outro Antonio Joze de Vín (?) as mais puzitivas (sic!) Ordens, pa. serem aprehendidos os Escros. e prezos os Ladrõens, remetendo os a esta Intenda. pa. se proceder com todo o rigor das Leÿs, e lhe heÿ pr. mto. recomendado esta deligca. expressa Ordens, a todos os Comdtes. dos Destritos e de prequem aos Comdtes. dos Regtos. pr. ondem passão passar, afim de se effectuar a deligca. ”

If Estevao Ribeiro de Rezende – since November Secretary of the Empire in Rio de Janeiro – issued present ordinance in the currently here not provable function as Juiz Ordinario – judge at first instance, at the same time president of the municipal council – of the city of Resende or the latter indicates the writer of present copy written by one hand throughout has to be left undecided. Ribeiro (Lagoa Dourada 1777 – Rio de Janeiro 1856), Marquês de Valença, became foreign minister and governor of Rio de Janeiro the following year, 1827 Minister of Justice and 1826 member of the Senate, to which body he belonged until his decease.


District Serra , March 7, 1832

Brazil - captain'o'weeds

Notification of the “Prizidente e Maiz Veradores da Camara Municipal” by the Justice of the Peace Ignacio de Loyolla Pereira on the nomination of a “captain’o’weeds” (capitão do mato). Sm. fol. 1 page. – On lined paper watermarked “PF”. – Especially the paper margins at three corners weakly brownspotted. At the right lateral margin tiny 5 mm ink break off. – Upper right numbered by different hands “57” as well as with red color pencil larger “32”.

“ Senho ahonxa departicigrar (?) a …. que tenho nomiado para Capp? damato da …. trito …. dodessa a Quehonante (?) de Mandon morador na Quenado, ealuiz Cotta amboz par doz …. que …. dezam Chamdoz para ?atum de Conhecidoz …. …. provimento. ”


São Paulo , March 20, 1855

Brazil - 'Wanted' Poster

Printed circular filled out and signed in writing by Antonio Roberto de Almuiz (?) of the police secretariat of São Paulo on behalf of caption and hand over to the prison of the capital of slave André, belonging to Francisco de Almeida Prado from Itú, “of 20 to 30 years, born in the Congo, his color is of fine black, so the hair, too, good teeth, of medium frame, good build, large feet, small and somewhat contracted mouth …”. At the same time announcing the death of another slave and criminal belonging to Vicente de Almeida Prado in Vila da Limeira. 1 page on double leaf. – Two largely smoothed out horizontal folds. In the left white margin as well as in the white interspace tiny worm holes. The right outer margin with traces of moisture and just as backed as the paper loss reaching from there along the upper horizontal fold up to the text, which in its further course with isolated smaller losses impairs one line of printing minimally only.

“ O Chefe de Policia muito recommenda ao Sr. Subdelegado de Policia da Frega de Enibaú (?) a captura e rentessa para a Cadéa desta Capital do escravo André pertencente a Francisco de Almeida Prado da Cidade de Itú, cujos signaes vão abaixo mencionados; o qual é criminoso na Villa da Limeira como indiciado na morte de um outro escravo pertencente a Vicente de Almeida Prado. ”


Queluz , April 24, 1865

Brazil - Marriage Certificate

Certificate by the curate Antonio Paulino (?) Benjamin, that “In the May of the year thousand eight hundred and sixty-five and in this register of Queluz at the second hour of the afternoon … corresponding to the regulations … in the presence of the undersigned witnesses give their consent by word, in the face of the church … husband and wife Joaquim Jozé Pinto from Naçãe, slave (of the) João Pinto Moreira, with Margarida da Maria de Jezus, daughter of Francisco Caetano de Jezus and Delfina Maria de Jezus … And together receive the nuptial gifts”. Sm. fol. 1 page. – On lined writing paper watermarked “Al Masso”. – Smoothed vertical and (3) horizontal folds together with three strengthenings. – Especially on the back isolated, on the front weaker brownspots. Lower right in the white margin trace of moisture together with several tiny brownspots and two tear offs.

“ Certifico, que em um livro de assentos (?) de cazamentos Lesta Matriz de Queluz á fl. 81 acha se o assento de theôr (?) seguinte = Aos suis de Maio de mil oitocentos e sessenta e um nesta Matriz de Queluz, as duas horas da tarde, depois de feitas as denunciaçães, Canonicao sem resultar impedimento algum precedindo o Sacramento da Penitencia, conforme determina a Igreja, em prezença das testemunhas abaixo assignadas, dando seos consentimentos por palavras, in facie Ecclesiæ, se receberão por marido e mulher Joaquim Jozé Pinto, de Naçãe, escravo que foi de João Pinto Moreira, com Margarida da Maria de Jezus, filha de Francisco Caetano (?) de Jezus, e Delfina Maria de Jezus baptizado nesta (?) enole ambos são fregueres (?). E logo recebesão as bençãos nupeiaes; E para constar fir este assente que apigno. Oligario Encommendado Germano Felip de Oliveira – Lourenço Rodrigues da Silveira – João Jozé de Carvalho. Nada mais se continho em dito assento, que (?) aqui eptrahi do proprio livro á que me reporte, e vae sem coura alguma que duvida (?) faço: ita in fide Parochi. Queluz 24 de Abril de 1865. ”


Barreiro , January 3, 1878

Brazil - Letter of Freedom

Letter of freedom by Graciano Francisco Teixeira for the half of mulatto slave Maria inherited from a relative “whose part and half is the sum of four hundred thousand réis”, which he has received at the same time in this connection from his brother-in-law Jose Roiz Pinto. Sm. fol. 1 page on lined double leaf. – With imperial revenue stamp about 200 réis. – Smoothed horizontal and (2) vertical folds which are somewhat browned especially on the back. – Isolated wormholes.

“ En abaixo assignado Graciano Fran. Teixera. nessadoz neste Monecipio, de laso q. sendo Senhor pessuidor da metada de valor sa escrava Maria mulata, q. me canbe q. (?) brança de mes finado sogre (?) Manuel Roiz Pinto, cuja parte e metade, é da quantia de quato centos mil reis; q. (?) isso, e emvista de dezejar (?) mes cunhado Jose Roiz Pinto, libertas a …. escrava, sezolri (?) a concedes (?) as …. Senhor oses (?) pedido, pelo q. deu-me elle a qto. de 400?000; en vista frais do q. acabo de espor, passo opsegente carta de liberdade na metade de valor da Sa. mulata Maria, cuja parte, como já disse, mecoube …. direito …. morte de mes ?agro (?) não (?). ficanda aparte outra pertinçente avouto (?) herdeiso. Degejando (?) tãobem en aliberdade da Sa. parte da mulata, muito de mes gesto (?) atendi arpedido (?) do …. ….  Reis, pelo q. á inda repito, q. fica de hera endiante livre ametade da Sa. escrava Maria, não posendo (?) ?inguen mais ahamas-lhe (?) aposse; pelo q. passei apsegente carta q. assigno con astestemunhas Luis Adenisão (?) Salustiano (?) de Lgo. (?) Rebello (?), Manoel Pedro Roiz. Barreiro 3 de Janeiro de 1878. ”


Casa de Detenção da Corte , June 8, 1878

Brazil - Prison Invoice

Invoice by the royal prison about 6000 réis together with receipt note for first installment on the back for the owner of slave João imprisoned for ten days. Printed form filled out and signed in writing. 1 page. – Several smoothed folds. – Trimmed on the left under partial loss of the repeated vertical, ornamentally surrounded inscription “Casa de Detenção da Corte”. There, too, several tiny (stitching?) holes as well as two slightly larger backed ones. – Especially on the back somewhat fox or agespotted resp.


Fazenda da Onça em São José do Barreiro , September 2, 1884

Brazil - Letter of Liberation Brazil - Letter of Liberation

Letter of liberation by which Françisco Ferreira Leite as beside “other belongings master and owner of the 72 slaves of both sexes nominated below” sets these free, “on the condition though to stay, the debt of gratitude amounting to their value in services or money … to my creditors, as much as the mortgages as the other credits (?) … are satisfied” and, if afterwards still services remain, “bind themselves in this case to pay their value in services or money to me or to my family … Therefore mentioned slaves get, after satisfaction of their values to my creditors, the full freedom …”. Sm. fol. 2 pp. – Lined paper.

“ Cu abaixo assignado, Francisco Ferreira Leite, de claro que alem de outros bens que posseix (?), sou senhor e possuidor (?) de setenta e dons/dous 72 escravos de ambos os sexos que abaixo vai declarades os nomes, cujos escravos nesta dacta deu (?) liberdade, com acondição porem deficarem obrigados apagarem em serviços ou em dinheiro os seus valores pelo o qual ferem avaliados á os meus credores, tanto as hÿpothecario, como a outro qualquir credôr, visto que o meu dezejo é saptisfazebos, saptisfeito aclauzula acima entrarão no faleno gezo da liberdade, se, por acazo os meus credores dizistirem dos serviços dos dictos escravos, ficarão neste cazo obrigados a pagarem seus valores em serviços ou a dinheiro a mim, ou a minho familia. As escravos são as seguintes. Furtunato de Nação, Marcolina Criola, Vitorio de Nação, Camilla de Nação, Joaquim de Nação, Andreya Criola, Miguel de Nação, Amelia Criola, Thÿedoro de Nação, Sizinanda Criola, Marcilino Pardo, Sebastiana Criola, Thomas de Nação, Thomzia Criola, Maria Antonia de Nação, Joaquina de Nação, Luzia de Nação, Clemente de Nação, Alixandrina Parda, Geraldina Parda, Antonio Criolo, Benedicto Pardo, José Criolo, Inez Criola, Carolina Criola, Isabel Criola, Idalina Parda, Eva Criola, Satarnina Criola, Adão Pardo, Manuel Criolo, Joaquim Criolo, Tiburcio Criolo, Joaquina Criola, Leocadia Criola, Amaro Criolo, Venancia Criola, Luis Criolo, Paulino Criolo, Thÿedora Criola, Bezario Criolo, Raque (?) Criolo, Zacarias Criolo, Berillo Criolo, Roque-Mina Criolo, José Reis Criolo, Graciano Pardo, Ubaldo Criolo, Buerino Criolo Guitherme Criolo, Fidelles Criolo, Torquato Criolo, Elpidio Criolo, Herme Criolo, Gregorio Criolo, Marcelina Reis Criola, Lucinda Criola, Baitana Criola, Emiliana Criola, Esmeria Criola, Barbara Criola, Felicia Criola, Elena Criola, Ricarda Criola, Rezaria Parda, Madalena Criola, Camilla Parda, Aurora Parda, Maria Mineira Criola, Thereza Criola, Joaquina Reis Criola. Bujos escravos acima mencionados seus nomes, achão-se matriculados na Collectoria de Villa de São José dos Barreiras, Provincia de São Paulo, por isso julguei disnecessario indicar es numeros da matricula. Assim, saptisfeito os seus valores aos meus credores, entrarão os dictos escravos negezo de plena liberdade, e nãs projudicando assim a meus credores: Pesse por tanto o apeio das bis e de todas as auturidades do Imperio para que extra carta de liberdade deja em todo e senlido validas messuo com falta de qualquer es clarecimento, dou por empregado, seudo esse o meu dezejo. ”


In  this  thematic  width  of  variation  already  of  great  charm  of  its  own

and specifically just for Brazil’s history as globally also cultural and social historically of general importance, the papers present here gain even quite considerable additional value as – it may be repeated – due to the destruction of all relevant material ordered by the government in 1890 only

“ few  documents  about  slavery  in  Brazil  exist  today ”

(Daniel Ruiz-Rosario).

Thus the chance of an in this regard great collection enhancement by even a whole block of documents is obvious and proven.

Offer no. 28,681 / price on application